Saturday, August 31, 2019
In the story, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, there are many themes. Two of them include racism and displacement. At a very young age, Maya met the effects of racism and segregation in America. She had been told about the differences between blacks and whites, which developed her belief that only blonde hair is beautiful and that she is a fat black girl stuck in a nightmare. However, Stamps, Arkansas, was so segregated that as a child Maya never really saw white people which made her believe that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. As Maya gets older, she is approached by more personal incidents of racism, such as a white dentistÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to treat her. These unfair events humiliate Maya and her relatives. She learns that living in a very racist society has shaped her family members, and she tries to overcome them. Resistance to racism has many forms in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Big Bailey buys glitzy clothes and drives a fancy car to state his wealth and runs around with women to declare his masculinity in the face of degrading and reducing racism. Momma keeps her pride by seeing things realistically and keeping to herself. Daddy ClidellÃ¢â¬â¢s friends learn to use white peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ racism against them in worthwhile cons. Maya first experiments with resistance when she breaks her white employerÃ¢â¬â¢s heirloom china. Her bravest act of disobedience happens when she becomes the first black streetcar conductor in San Francisco. Blacks also used the church as a place of revolutionary resistance. This story also includes the theme of displacement. Maya is moved around to seven different homes between the ages of three and sixteen. As said in the poem she tries to recite on Easter, the statement Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come to stayÃ¢â¬ becomes her shield against the reality of her rootlessness. Maya is always humiliated, making her unable to put down her shield and feel comfortable staying in one place. When she is thirteen she moved to San Francisco with her mother, Bailey, and Daddy Clidell. She finally feels that she belongs somewhere for the first time. As Maya continues her journey, she realizes that thousands of other terrified black children made the same journey as she and Bailey. Traveling on their own to newly wealthy parents in northern cities, or back to southern towns when the North failed to supply the economy it had promised. African Americans descended from slaves who were displaced from their homes and homelands in Africa, and blacks continued to struggle to find their place in a country friendly to their heritage.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Fast food , the type of food changed our lives. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fast, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to prepare, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to eat, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s cheap. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for everyone. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for the poor and the non-poor. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for students, for managers, for actors, for factory workers, for criminals, for priestsÃ¢â¬ ¦ today it seems like fast food was always around and it is not possible to imagine a world without fast food. Even countries like Japan, which has a traditional diet of rice, fish, vegetables and soy products, accepted fast food into their worlds. The biggest help of this growing is advertisement. Fast food advertisements are mainly focusing on television, magazines, billboards and Internet. One of the most powerful ways of advertising fast food is product placement. Product Plac/ement is a term defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the practice of integrating specific products and brands into filmed e/ntertainment. Ã¢â¬ Product placement was always evolved into the billion-dollar market of Hollywood. As the costs keep increasing for producing movies, studios become ready to make connections with big corporations, which are willing to place their products in a big, particular film. These big connections have big payments. For example Ã¢â¬Å"direct payments for product placement (for instance in License to Kill Phillip Morris Tobacco paid $350,000 for Bond to smoke a Lark cigarette). Ã¢â¬ Another good example is, In the biggest co-marketing deal in film history, Coca-Cola paid ÃË95 million to the producers of Harry Potter for the right o use the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s logo on itÃ¢â¬â¢s cans in what will become a series of films; the first Harry Potter film cost ÃË75 million. It went on general release on November 2001 and is expected to be shown on a thousand screens in the UK. The movie was like the big bang as expected. Harry Potter products everywhere sold in huge amounts and consumers attacked to any product of the movie letting the industry behind the scenes to gain more power. Today all major US film studios seeking for brands to place into a film they are producing. Studios donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay to the brand owner but the benefits of product placement advertisement are so big to the product name and the film itself that each side promotes the other. Even some smaller studios are seeking for product placement. These movies usually require the product owners to pay television and billboard advertisements. A small film cannot afford these types of advertisements but product placement can. Eric Schlosser is the author who has written about the fast food industry and he presents many of his findings in the book Ã¢â¬Å"Fast Food NationÃ¢â¬ . However, his book is not merely an expose of the fast food industry but is even more a consideration of how the fast food industry has shaped and defined American society in America and for other nations as America exports its fast food culture to others. Schlosser describes a great deal of American culture to the fast food mentality, and he finds that globalization is taking the fast food culture around the world at a rapid rate. Schlosser addresses a number of specific issues related to food production and distribution. He connects the social order of a society to the kind of food it eats and the way it eats that food, with American society very much defined by the fast food culture that has developed. Schlosser tends to represent the theory stressing the importance of interdependence among all behavior patterns and institutions within a social system, as can be seen from how he connects fast food to other social processes and institutions. The icon that represents fast food culture for most people is McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, though the fast food culture developed long before the creation of that restaurant chain. Schlosser considers the impact of such fast-food chains but also considers the primacy of the hamburger in the American diet and some of the dangers it poses. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on hamburger is a questionable item for a steady diet in a more health conscious age, and interferes with local customs and food in different parts of the world. Schlosser addresses this issue from several perspectives, beginning with a consideration of how safe the meat really is, not only on the basis of nutritional value but also on the basis of additives, preservatives, diseases, and even potential radioactivity. Some beef is considered questionable, and much of it makes its way through the USDA to school cafeterias Napoleon Bonaparte once said, Ã¢â¬ A manÃ¢â¬â¢s palate can, in time, become accustomed to anything. Ã¢â¬ While this French emperor may have had some difficulty like the Battle of Waterloo, he certainly has hit the nail on the head this time. The food industry has evolved in ways that may not be distinguishable to the human palate, but hopefully remain distinguishable to the human conscience. With all the options now available to industrial leaders, citizens must be sure to keep them from abusing their powers and continuing to harm employees, animals, and consumers. The best ways are to promote public discourse, to act as the industrial Ã¢â¬Ëwatchdog,Ã¢â¬â¢ and to make the most of the power of the consumerÃ¢â¬ ¦ the almighty dollar. Fast Food Industry Name: Course: InstructorÃ ²ÃâÃ¢â ¢s name: Date: Abstract This paper on Fast food industry covers a detailed exploration of the fast food industry to in order to identify new emerging issues in the field of fast foods industry. The paper also significantly projects about the future rends of this economy that is growing tremendously fast. It identifies fast food in a specific region or nation and provides sequence details about that particular market. Experts with experience in economics, politics, and the restaurant industry can be involved in the projections of fast food industry analysis. Health concerns From the time fast foods services were established the chain gangs have intensely emerged throughout the preceding decades. The values of nutrition in fast food providers as well as in the provisions made have diminished as the demand for convenience exploded throughout America. This is due to the many health effects than advantages that those who access these services pose. It has been noted that eating frequently at fast food products leads teens and young adults to gain more weight. This emerging lifestyle poses an increased risk of developing insulin resistance to those practicing it, according to the recent study of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).
Thursday, August 29, 2019
McNationalizations probably the most obvious in terms of its connection with AmAmericanizationas the McDonald's franchise is a purely American product. Other than the obvious, McNationalizationoncerns the spread of an American product Ã¢â¬â or in this case, as RiRitzierould argue Ã¢â¬â a method of supply and demand momodeledn the American fast-food industry.It could be argued that AmAmericanizationinders our understanding of the process of Cultural Appropriation, because Cultural Appropriation usually deals with the taking of aspects of a minority group's culture and adopting these elements into a more dominant cultural group, whereas with AmAmericanizationthe elements of a dominant group (America) are aaopiatento cultural mlmolesterssociety InNineame can De sasalsaor Cultural Imperialism and AmAmericanization/p>Cultural Imperialism describes the process of enforcing a culture or language onto another cultural group, which, in a way, is what Europeans and early Americans during the settlement of America Ã¢â¬â English became the dominant language of the United States, with an English and European society acting as the foundation of the American society. The native peoples of America were forced out of their homes and forced to interact with the now dominant settlers in English, and adopt a more European way of living Ã¢â¬â a ChChristianizeswhite way of life.In contemporary society, AmAmericanizationoesn't necessarily help our understanding of this term, as American culture isn't enforced on minority groups around the world, but rather it is slowly adopted by them. In conclusion, the label Ã¢â¬ËAmAmericanization as an umbrella term for the cultural, social and economic processes mentioned, helps our understanding of the terms, as it provides a specific, well-known example of an influential, globally dominant culture that ututilizeshe processes for its own global expansion and power.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Identify the federal law that governs Protected Health Information (PHI) and briefly discuss the elements of compliance. Describ - Term Paper Example In all, there are 18 identifiers that must be followed implicitly in order to avoid a breach of confidentiality. (Jones, 2009) Under HIPAA patients have the right to be educated regarding their health information and a clear definition of what will be done with that information, who has access to it; how it is stored, communicated, and distributed. They also have access to their health information with the right to amend it, obtain copies of it, and know the history of to whom it has been distributed. Before health care information can be released from the provider, the patient must sign an informed consent stating where the information will be distributed. This release must be specific and timely; health information requested for non-routine uses requires a separate consent to be signed by the patient. This authorized consent may not be forced or coerced; complaints with regards to breach of confidentiality can be filed with the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Servic es. (Senior Health Forum, 2011) One of the largest claims filed to date involves a Seattle firm, Providence Health System.
Swa chp 47 - Research Paper Example ment of appropriate tools to combat corporate fraud, penalize corporate offenders, and dissuade corporate deception making use of threat of stiffer penalties. The Act minimizes the risk of losses incurred by investors in case of fraud and theft. Additionally, the act encourages fraud reporting by setting aside benefit of reliable financial reporting, transparency, and answerability. Generally, the SOX Act addresses the issue of regulation for public companies and their auditors who are required to confirm organization reports on the efficiency of internal financial control as provided by Section 404. The ActÃ¢â¬â¢s aim was to help companies audit their accounts (Protiviti 22-30). Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of businesses and accounting firms must verify that company accounts and other financial statements are a true representation of the firms or businesses financial situation. Additionally, the firms and business managements must acknowledge annually that they are accountable of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial control and that the internal systems involved in company financial control are operational accounts. Additionally, the firms and business must ensure that all the departments fully document every practice that impacts on the financial processes of the organization. Furthermore, the organizations must ensure that all the possible risks of occurrence of fraud or financial mismanagement are identified and that relevant controls to counteract such risks are put in place. The Act holds the company CEOs and CFOs personally responsible for all the information comprised in their firms or business financial statements and systems of internal financial regulator accounts. Section 201 made it illegal for public accounting firms to deliver definite audit services to audit clients. However, the public accounting firms are free to provide other non-audit services if they are but they must be pre-approved by the audit committee. The
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Why I want to study the Law - Essay Example Police officers, it seems, are under paid and under appreciated. Each day their lives are placed in jeopardy just so that a student like me can be safe in school and in the streets. Yet for some inexplicable reason, their efforts are not heralded by most citizens or the media. But I expect that the reason why citizens become police officers is to help people, and set an example for their community. I do not consider becoming a police officer to be a right, it is an honor. It is an honor to visit schools and teach children the danger of drugs. It is a privilege to provide a feeling of safety to the elderly. I want to be an officer because my desire is to protect and serve. I want to stop harm from visiting innocent people and I want to serve my community in a way that benefits its' citizens. These are the traits that a candidate should have: Trust- to establish credibility with others by being consistent and accountable, delivering on our promises and building a solid track record of reliability; and to protect the integrity of private information to which we have access in the course of our official duties. Responsibility- to be dependable and accountable for our actions and to report concerns in the workplace including violations of laws, regulations and policies, and seek clarification whenever there is doubt. Citizenship- to protect the public trust by upholding and obeyi
Monday, August 26, 2019
Marine Ship Yard - Research Paper Example It has negative impacts on many shipbuilding companies and counties around the world due to the biggest overcapacity of shipyards such as the far greater supply of fleet that it requires by the market (Mickeviciene). In order to meet the market and business success Western Marine Shipyard must consider that different countries have many nationalities that help the company to bring new ideas and ways to enhance the continuous strive to business success. Employees should be empowered in order to seek new opportunities, innovate and build an efficient working environment that is professional and positive for all. Western Marine Shipyard team members undergo intensive training to have a quality service and produce highly products and, the company considers it is a career, a great opportunity to work among the best personnel, receive the support needed to the make good decisions and deliver the best outcomes. This will carry out into the different branches around the world. In terms its benefits and financial impact, the recommendation will hit hard the shipyards. The primary challenge is in the industry is intermediate financing and this challenge having direct impact on the industrys production cos t, quality and growth. On the positive note the government should support its shipbuilding industry. The western Marine shipyard will be continually challenged with inconsistencies/contradiction - deal with the changes because the management is the integrating force within the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Whenever two or more individual works together in order to achieve a common goal, they have to communicate or coordinate their activities or programs. The employees also should be organized and maximize their resources in such way as to optimize the outcomes. The company will face with the challenge to manage both stability and change within organizations in the future. This has been evident in the story of
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Art Critique (-) - Research Paper Example d in pale green and with a colorful African scarf draped around her neck, holds a white cracked ceramic mask in her hands and rests one arm on the table in front of her. On the table are three tarot cards representing lynchings with the Hanged Man card, Civil Rights with the Justice card and perseverance with the Strength card. The strength of the composition rests in the line of sight of the characters which both freeze the eye within the frame and refuse to engage with the viewer personally. Color also contributes to the paintingÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness as the limited color on the tarot cards continuously direct the eye to the center of the image where the colorful dress and scarf of the woman stand in sharp contrast to the white of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s T-shirt without blending into the muted tans of the background. These pastel-like shades provide a muted feel to the work which helps to highlight the emotions of the people depicted, both of whom feel it necessary to maintain a hold on the white mask that enables them to move in mainstream society. The symbolism apparent in the piece is clear to those with knowledge or curiosity to examine the cards on the table and to understand the condition of people of color within a majority white society. The chasm in the background communicates a vast hurdle to overcom e before the prediction of justice found in the cards on the table comes to pass. However, the strength depicted in these characters and the cracks in the mask suggest this is not a condition that can last long nor is it one that will break the spirits of these people. By examining a series of artworks created by Valerie Winslow, it becomes clear that the artist has a very strong introspective approach to her work. This is revealed in the very detailed depictions of human anatomy she has created as well as in the brooding attitudes of the characters in her more imaginative paintings. Her inclusion of a number of symbols within her paintings further indicates a strong
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Legal Concepts Worksheet - Essay Example Federal courts - supercede jurisdiction over state courts. In order to file a lawsuit in federal court there must be a federal question or diversity in jurisdiction. A state action will not lie in federal court. Decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court - The US supreme court trumps all courts. It is the law of the land and all courts bow to it. The decisions of the supreme court guide all courts in the nation on how to rule on a specific issue. A judge must not rule in a manner that is contra to established supreme court law. Judicial restraint - The court will restrain itself from ruling on areas not with in the ambit of the legal question before them. However sometimes, we can take a guess on their stance on a particular issue by reading the dissenting opinion, stare decisis or dicta. Subject-matter jurisdiction - the court must have the authority to decide a particular issue. For example, the small claims courts in New York cannot have jurisdiction in a matter that requests over three thousand in damages. Personal jurisdiction - the defendant must either reside, or live in the state that the action is commenced in or there is no jurisdiction. When this happens, you start to look at long arm jurisdiction possibilities. Class-action suits - an action that is brought by a class of people. This does not mean that a group of friends get together to bring a suit.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Time Capsule - Essay Example The following six tracks selected are as follows. The Baroque era constitutes a significant shift in music style. One of the most notable composers of this era is Johann Sebastian Bach. While there were a great variety of BachÃ¢â¬â¢s works the selection committee considered, BachÃ¢â¬â¢s composition Ã¢â¬ËSonata no 1Ã¢â¬â¢ a characteristic example of his work. This track combines violin and harpsichord in a level of instrumental complexity and poignancy that at the time had not yet been experienced in the history of music. While ostensibly non-secular this music seemingly transcends such categorizations as it exhibits pure musical poignancy. In these regards, there is a sort of mysterious quality to the track that places it at a level of great interest and intrigue to listeners. In addition to these sonic qualities the committee considered that Bach has significant historical importance both for his power compositions as well as the tremendous influence he had on future musicians. His influential nature and iconic historical importance factored greatly into the committeeÃ¢â¬â¢s selection of this composition for the time capsule. Furthermore, BachÃ¢â¬â¢s harpsichord concertos are recognized by scholars as among the first concertos for the keyboard instrument ever written (Bukofzer 2008). Another notable Baroque era composer selected for the time capsule was Jean Baptiste Lully, with his Ã¢â¬ËSymphonieÃ¢â¬â¢ the selected work. While BachÃ¢â¬â¢s work was slightly subtle, this composition is highly bombastic with patriotic or nationalistic overtones in its upbeat melody; in these regards, it could fit perfectly in a state or crown sponsored event (Bukofzer 2008). There were a number of factors that led to the committeeÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. In addition to LullyÃ¢â¬â¢s seminal historical importance to the Baroque era, this composition has withstood the test of time and its sonorous, yet patriotic qualities are
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Intrusion Detection System Essay Introduction There are several security systems that were developed to resolve serious issues pertaining to the safety of a particular network or organization structure. Malicious attempts to access and make use of such systems without permission from the owner of the said network have been damaging to numerous businesses and have exposed a lot of highly confidential files. As a result, more money has been lost and profits have been decreased greatly. However, many companies are still clueless about the ways on how to stop this information technology theft and the computer hackers continue to proliferate from this illegal works. One of the solutions that are currently available to resolve the abovementioned problems is to utilize a software-based intrusion detection method. This can also be a mixture of both hardware and software implementation dedicated to stop any unwanted access to information by any user attempting to get in on the said system. It is also intended for detection of any malicious wares that is being injected into the computer system. In addition to that, any attack even from authorized personnel who deliberately destroys the files and data in the network are also being identified by the said infringement recognition scheme. There are several modules that are being integrated to establish an intrusion detection system. One of the major parts of an intrusion detection system is the transducer. These transducers are devices that are responsible for producing logic information on the system. Its major role lies on the sensitivity of the said sensors being used for detecting such harmful files or manipulations. Another module that is a part of the anti-intrusion scheme is the monitoring system that is in charge of controlling the transducers or sensors. It also provides periodic observation of any event that occurs on the area covered by the system. The next module that completes the intrusion detection system is the central processing structure. This records the observed events by the monitoring system and processes the appropriate response for the said network stimulus. This also decides if there will be approval or denial of access and service. Anti-Intrusion Scheme Terminologies There are terminologies that are associated with the intrusion detection system. Alarm or alert is a term used if there is an attack detected by the system. True attack stimulus is a phrase that is used to describe an incident that causes the anti-intrusion system to send an alarm signal and respond accordingly similar to the real aggression happening. False attack stimulus, on the other hand, is used when the intrusion detection scheme produces an alert response even when there is no attack occurring. False positive is the phrase used to describe when an alarm was made by the system even there is no actual system attack occurring while False negative is used when there is a failure on the part of the system to detect an actual assault on the system. Noise is the term used that interferes the original data and that can cause false alarm on the system. Another terminology used in the system is the site policy wherein it includes the guidelines and regulations that covers the entire organization that has an intrusion detection system. Site policy consciousness is the terminology used to describe the ability of an anti-intrusion scheme in a continuous changing environment. Intrusion Detection System Types Several variations of intrusion detection scheme were already developed and each has its distinct approach and modules like sensors, processors, and monitor devices. Each type has its own system processes depending on the need of the corresponding network being served by the said computer security systems set-up. Hybrid types or combination of two types is also being used by some networks to establish their need for network security system. Classification of Intrusion Detection System Source: www. windowsecurity. com Network Intrusion Detection System A network intrusion detection scheme is a type of an anti-intrusion arrangement where the transducers are strategically located in critical points being covered by the system. Particular borders are also recognized on the network systems that are considered prone to malevolent traffic flow of information. Protocol-Based Intrusion System The protocol-based intrusion scheme is a network intrusion category that processes on the protocols for any improper or unlawful message flow or any sort of unlawful access of the network. The sensors used with this type of system are placed at the front section of the server network to be able to analyze communication protocols between connected computer devices. In a web-based network, the protocol being observed is on the internet protocols being used to interconnect the said system set-up with other networks also linked to the internet. Application Protocol-Based Intrusion Detection System This type of anti-intrusion set-up comprises of approaches where the monitoring system is focused on a specific type of protocols particularly under the highest layer in the OSI model which is the application layer. This scrutinizes the application layer software being used in the system against any sort of illegal activities that can be damaging to the system as a whole. Host-Based Intrusion System The hot-based intrusion system focuses all the monitoring efforts on the activities made by the hosts where various software installations are located. It also looks on application logs and other file variations for any intrusion states. Passive System against Reactive System A passive anti-intrusion system provides an alert signal once a particular sensor detected a likely network security violation. It also log important information related to the said detection for future references on the said intrusion attempt. On the other hand, a reactive intrusion detection system provides a more responsive approach on the network infringement attempt on the set-up. The said reactive system makes some real-time adjustments to counter the said intrusion like resetting the link or the firewall program that would be necessary to maintain the security within the network. Such adjustments occur instantly, depending upon the pre-programmed responses of the intrusion system on the said network infringements. An intrusion prevention system differs a lot from a conventional intrusion detection system because the first looks for any possibility of harming the system before the subjected program or software enter the system while the latter only detects for the any possible intrusion after the entrance of the said suspicious programs. With the use of firewalls, they filter the programs that might pose risks on the network and denying access from any unknown sources or unreliable hosts. Invasion prevention scheme can also be classified under a specific firewall application layer. Intrusion detection structure uses two common methods in detecting any anomaly in the system. One of these methods includes the statistical process of determining whether a network infringement occurred in the system. This approach is called statistical anomaly-based technique. Another method that is also being employed in the intrusion recognition system is the signature-based technique. Under this approach, any network attack is being recognized through familiar patterns which are acknowledged as system attack signatures. Many of these identified attack signatures are being held in the database of a computer system for future references and further detection will be much easier for detection of these familiar network intruders. Moreover, the lists of these signatures are continuously being renewed to ensure the validity of the threat signatures on the system. All intrusion detection modules have constraints in their overall routine and efficiency in performing its duties to detect network anomalies in the system. One of the limitations that hinder the effect of anti-network hacking system is the noise that degrades the reliability and sensitivity of many of the intrusion detection schemes. There is also inherent noise on the system that should be controlled to be able to produce better detection results. Corrupt data and inefficient recognition of potential intruders are some of the problems resulting from the proliferation of noise in the entire network security set-up. Another problem is that real threats on the network system occurs less frequent compared to invalid risks that also appear on the system. Because of this, anti-intrusion systems sometimes neglect the real warnings and looked at it as another false attack where problems begin to propagate. The next limitation is on the need for regular updating of threat signatures. Without such efforts, some agents that causes harm to the entire system would easily passed on the security line because the said network anti-infringement scheme do not have the update information on the current or new harmful agents that might inflict damage to the system. Anti-intrusion techniques can also be bypassed by other means and this can be done on several ways. One of the techniques is to develop more network attack procedures as a product of thorough research on the current protection systems. Loopholes in the anti-intrusion schemes are also valid grounds for development of new approaches on how to circumvent the security hurdles implemented by the said anti-intrusion procedures. (www. ) Developments on Intrusion Detection System A lot of advancements in the field of intrusion recognition system are being made to resolve the key issues in the said system. Various ideas continuously undergoes experimentation for further testing and implementation once the test results appear to have passed all the standards set by the authorized technical agencies. One key development in the field of network security system is the inclusion of access logs for to be able to trace any anomaly that occurred during the entire operation of the network. In the year 1984, another valid finding was made with regards to the possibility of network attack anomalies with the increasing amount of memory being used. It was stated that the need for more resources that can be used to scan and monitor the entire system. Two years after, a model was structured and made available by a computer network professional defining the over-all composition of an anti-intrusion scheme. This model was adapted by many companies and implemented on their own respective systems. The model utilized appropriate mathematical tools that analyze data statistically. Neural complex algorithm is also being integrated into the anti-intrusion structure to have a more interactive approach in dealing with network violators. This neural set-up poses more advantages compared to the mathematical approaches. (www. windowsecurity. com) Conclusion Intrusion detection system plays a vital role in managing a network communications structure of companies. Though the scheme has complexities in terms of the processes and the modules included in it, the anti-intrusion system still has greater benefits compared to the aforementioned intricacies of the said system. Various developments are still under way in order to enhance the procedures of detecting network anomalies that are trying to implicate the system. Competent people should also be assigned on this task of monitoring the flow of the network because much responsibility is assigned on maintaining the entire system hack-free. Continuous upgrading on the approach should also be made regularly to ensure that they are in pace with the network violators and its illegal schemes to get access on the confidential data and files of a network. Moreover, system hardware and software should also be updated on a regular basis to avoid lapses on its primary function as an anti-network infringement system. References Intrusion Detection Scheme. Retrieved on April 26, 2009, Retrieved from www. windowsecurity. com Elson D. : Ã¢â¬Å"Intrusion Detection, Theory and Practice. Retrieved on April 27, 2009. Retrieved from http://online. securityfocus. com Frederick K. K. : Network Intrusion Detection. Retrieved on , April 28, 2009. Get well soon www. webonline. securityfocus. com.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Centralia Mine Essay The Centralia Mine opened in 1907 and remained free of fatal accidents for decades (Walker, 2006). By the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s mine inspectors began reporting excessive coal dust in the mines and also provided recommendations. In March 25, 1947, the Centralia No. 5 coal mine exploded near the town of Centralia, Illinois, killing 111 people. The explosion was caused when an under burdened explosive detonation ignited coal dust. The explosion of this mine should not have been a surprise to anyone. Driscoll Scanlan, who was a state mine inspector, notified public sector safety professionals from state and federal agencies of the hazards as a result of inspections. There were also union complaints and letters to state officials. Various officials of mine safety agencies and the mine company were notified on more than one occasion. Scanlan as well as the mineÃ¢â¬â¢s union had also pushed to have the hazards corrected. The lack of the federal and state officials to take action, along with the ignition of built up coal dust, resulted in the death of 111 coal miners. Identify and explain four (4) logistical alternatives Scanlan could have addressed. In 1941, Illinois Governor Dwight Green appointed Driscoll Scanlan, as one of the states 16 mine inspectors. Scanlan was highly recommended by a state representative (Martin, 1948). He was appointed as the inspector of the district which included Centralia Mine No. 5. State inspectors jobs include making sure mine operators comply with the state mining law (Stillman, 2010). His first inspection of Centralia No. 5 was in 1942. In his first report, his recommendations included cleaning and sprinkling the haulage roads. Scanlan inspected the mine several times in the years before the explosion. At the end of each inspection he sent his report to the Illinois Department of Mines and Minerals. Several of his reports throughout 1942-1944 repeated his previous recommendations and added new one. In one of the latter ones, he recommended that the mine be rocked dusted (Stillman, 2010). In follow up to his reports, he should have inquired with the Director for the status of his recommendations. When he found that none of them were taken care of, he could have let the miners know what the issues were and helped fix the areas in which there were problems. Scanlan could have also worked with the union to push fixing the mine or shutting it down until repaired. When he made the threat to shut them down, the company started to fix some of the problems that were indicated in his reports. The changes that the company made to the mines were only temporary. His only other option would be to try to sprinkle the roads and help with the rock dusting. Analyze and discuss ScanlanÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation toward the Constitution (the law), bureaucracy (as a public administrator responsible to the public), and obligation. Scanlan carried out the duties of inspecting the mines. He reported his findings to the Department of Mines and Minerals and the State Mining Board (Stillman, 2010). Scanlan was truly an advocate for the miners. He, unlike some the other inspectors, did not get involved in the political aspects with the companies. Many of the inspectors would have drinks with the company officials and provide brief inspection reports. Scanlan was quite different. Scanlan talked to the miners and made sure that their complaints were included in his inspection reports (Stillman, 2010). The local union expressed their concerns to the State of Illinois in response to the findings of the special investigation commission (Stillman, 2010). They also followed up with a letter to Governor Green, thanking Scanlan for taking the issues to Prudent the Superintendent and local officials on their behalf (Stillman, 2010). Scanlan made 13 inspections and reports, each were reported to the Department of Mining and Minerals. Most of his reports were dismissed and responded to as not being as serious as it seems. Take a position on two (2) possible paths of action for Scanlan and defend your choices. Business and political gain played a critical role in the conditions that led to the accidents. Although Scanlan provided numerous reports, his superiors down played the seriousness of his recommendations. They seemed to be more concerned about keeping the officials happy. The lack of attention given to the seriousness of the inspection reports provided by Scanlan proved to be detrimental to the miners. His inspection reports were ignored by state mining officials and mine company supervisors. ScanlanÃ¢â¬â¢s first course of action should have been to shut down the mine. Being a state inspector, he had the authority to shut down a mine if there were violations that had been brought to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, but not addressed in a reasonable amount of time. This action, in my opinion, would have been the best course of action. An alternative course of action would have been to go the officials that are higher than the state and federal officials that he was dealing with. He had performed enough inspections, over the course of 3 years, and found that if the mining conditions were not improved, that fatalities would eventually occur at this mine (Saleh, 2011). The state and federal officials were more concerned about continuing business. They did not take into consideration the seriousness of the inspection reports that Scanlan was continually providing them with. The lack of their follow through and the dismissing of his recommendations would have been taking more seriously by someone at a higher level. I feel that they would have stepped in and taken action that may have saved the lives of the miners. This disaster followed by another mining disaster in 1968 caused Congress to become more aggressive with mining companies by passing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in 1969 (Ward, 2007). Unfortunately it took another terrible mining incident to get them to notice how important it is for higher officials to make companies follow the recommendations of mining inspectors.
What Is Green Infrastructure Environmental Sciences Essay Over the coming century, climate change scenarios in urban regions will be managing extremes of precipitation and temperature, increased storm frequency and intensity, and sea-level rise. The problems with which urban areas are already be indicating that climate change impacts have begun to occur and are likely to worsen in the future. Often green approaches are combined with modifications to other traditional hard infrastructures such as expanding storm-sewers and streets or building storm-water storage tunnels. In recent thinking, portfolios of green infrastructure and technologies have been identified as best practices at the local level when combined with traditional grey infrastructure to achieve greater urban sustainability and resilience. In addition, green infrastructure is now being recognized for its value as a means for adapting to the emerging and irreversible impacts of climate change. What is Green Infrastructure? The Definition According to Neil (2006), Green Infrastructure includes the network of green spaces and other natural elements such as river sand lakes that are interspersed between and connect villages, towns and cities. Individually these elements are green infrastructure assets and the roles that these assets play are green infrastructure functions. When appropriately planned, designed and managed, these assets and functions have the potential to deliver a wide range of social, environmental and economic benefits. Green infrastructure approaches help to achieve sustainability and resilience goals over a range of outcomes in addition to climate adaptation. The climate adaptation benefits of green infrastructure are generally related to their ability to moderate the impacts of extreme precipitation or temperature. The History of Green Infrastructures. According to Karen Firehock (2010). Green infrastructure planning is not an entirely new concept and the principles that form the basis for the concept have arisen from multiple disciplines. The term itself was first coined in Florida in 1994 in a report to the governor on land conservation strategies and was intended to reflect the notion that natural systems are equally, if not more important, components of our infrastructure. Since it is generally accepted that we have to plan for grey infrastructure, the idea of also planning to conserve or restore our natural resources, or green infrastructure, helped people to recognize its importance to community planning. As defined by Benedict and McMahon (2006). Green infrastructure is a strategically planned and managed network of wilderness, parks, greenways, conservation easements, and working lands with conservation value that supports native species, maintains natural ecological processes, sustains air and water resources, and contributes to the health and quality of life for Americas communities and people The types of green infrastructures According to Neil (2006), Green infrastructure approaches to land-use planning promote the widest range of functions which can be performed by the same asset, unlocking the greatest number of benefits. Such an approach enables us to demand more from the land in a sustainable way; by helping to identify when it can provide multiple benefits and to manage the many, often conflicting, pressures for housing, industry, transport, energy, agriculture, nature conservation, recreation and aesthetics. It also highlights where it is important to retain single or limited land use functions. There are has many types of green infrastructure including in local scales, cities scale and regional scale. The types of green infrastructure in local, neighborhood, village such as : Trees Street Hedges pocket parks private gardens pond and streams cemeteries and burial grounds green roofs and walls, swales institutional open spaces small wood lands and etcetera. In town, city and district scale such as : business settings city parks forest parks lakes country parks rivers and flood plains recreational spaces agricultural land landfill brownfield areas and many more. In city-region, regional and national scale the types of green infrastructures is : regional parks shoreline forest reservoirs roads and railway networks national parks The Benefits of Green Infrastructure. According to Neil (2006) The benefits of incorporating green infrastructure into the planning, management and design. The multifunctional nature of green infrastructure assets, underpinned by ecosystem services, means that they can deliver a diverse range of benefits which are mutually reinforcing and can be enhanced by the connectivity of these assets. It is important to fully appreciate the many benefits that GI can generate, including: 2.4.1 Climate change adaptation Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality, which often suffers because of higher temperatures. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding. 2.4.2 Water management Green infrastructure is a good approach for managingflood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. Green infrastructure can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands, enhancing carbon sequestration whilst providing important wildlife habitat. At Ingrebourne Hill, water management has been controlled through drainage schemes and the on-site lake, designed to alleviate flooding of neighboring properties and roads. 2.4.3 Economic values Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a catalyst for wider regeneration. High quality, connected environments attract skilled and mobile workers which in turn encourage business investment, as is demonstrated at Crewe Business Park. 2.4.4 Biodiversity enhancement, corridors and linkages The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change. The Landscape Architecture profession As retrieved from http://www.prospects.ac.uk/landscape_architect_job_description.htm (2010) Landscape architects create the landscape around us. They plan, design and manage open spaces including both natural and built environments. They work to provide innovative and aesthetically pleasing environments for people to enjoy, whilst ensuring that changes to the natural environment are appropriate, sensitive and sustainable. The definition of Landscape Architect. According to Arno Sighart Schmid (2000) Landscape Architects conduct research and advice on planning, design and stewardship of the outdoorÃ environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment, and its conservation and sustainability of development. For the profession of landscape architect, a degree in landscape architecture is required. Today, on the threshold of a new Millennium, humankind stands at a decisive point on its way into the future, with grave challenges and risks relating to our natural environment and its carrying capacity. Our profession of landscape architecture is called upon to contribute towards safeguarding the viability of the natural environment and towards developing and maintaining a humane built environment in cities, towns and villages. The role of landscape architect As defined by American Society of Landscape Architects Declaration on Environment and Development (1993). Landscape architecture is the profession which applies artistic and scientific principles to the research, planning, design and management of both natural and built environments. Practitioners of this profession apply creative and technical skills and scientific, cultural and political knowledge in the planned arrangement of natural and constructed elements on the land with a concern for the stewardship and conservation of natural, constructed and human resources. The resulting environments shall serve useful, aesthetic, safe and enjoyable purposes. The roles of landscape architect is : developing new or improved theories, policy and methods for landscape planning, design andÃ management at local, regional, national and multinational levels; developing policy, plans, and implementing and monitoring proposals as well as developing new orÃ improved theories and methods for national parks and other conservation and recreation areas; developing new or improved theories and methods to promote environmental awareness, and undertaking planning, design, restoration, management and maintenance of cultural and/or historic landscapes, parks, sites and gardens; planning, design, management, maintenance and monitoring functional and aesthetic layouts of builtÃ environment in urban, suburban, and rural areas including private and public open spaces, parks,Ã gardens, streetscapes, plazas, housing developments, burial grounds, memorials; tourist, commercial,Ã industrial and educational complexes; sports grounds, zoos, botanic gardens, recreation areas and farms; contributing to the planning, aesthetic and functional design, location, management and maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, dams, energy and major development projects; undertaking landscape assessments including environmental and visual impact assessments with view to developing policy or undertaking projects; identifying and developing appropriate solutions regarding the quality and use of the built environment in urban, suburban and rural areas and making designs, plans and working drawings, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules; conducting research, preparing scientific papers and technical reports, developing policy, teaching, and advising on aspects regarding landscape architecture such as the application of geographic The role landscape architect in green infrastructures. According to Neil (2006), Landscape practitioners are engaged in every stage of the green infrastructure approach and are leading a revolution in the way in which green infrastructure is developed. This includes the planning of environmental resources, the design of new public realm, implementation of strategy and the management of delivered projects. Landscape practitioners have a pivotal role to play with other professionals in all stages of a green infrastructure process, which operates at all spatial scales. Landscape practitioners are trained in a broad range of disciplines with an ability to think holistically and see the bigger picture. This means that the profession understands the many processes at work which shape the land and appreciates the need to consider potential changes to which a particular location could be subjected over time. The result is a profession which is ideally placed to provide the vision and tenacity needed for the sustainable development of our green i nfrastructure assets. Conclusion The green infrastructure is crucial part of urban fabric that is highly perceived by residents contributing to their physical, cognitive and social well-being. Green infrastructure as spaces where they have contact with nature that fulfill nature needs and residents interaction needs. Diversity afforded the residents experiential contacts with the green infrastructure that offered stimulations with the outdoor environments to the residents. It allowed them frequent engagements in various activities, made them familiar and felt connected with the green infrastructure. Landscape architect take a main role to develop green infrastructure in any part of urban or sub-urban area. It is importance for physical, social interactions and effects of residents engaging with greens and open spaces. Cognitive experience of green infrastructure also evokes a sense of attachment to green spaces and towards a community as a whole. This is because parks and urban green spaces offer people positive emo tional states and make available favorite places that are serene, peaceful and restful.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Loss of innocence In The Lord of the Flies by William Golding explains how a group, as kids grow into young adults being savages due to their need of surviving. Golding wrote Lord of the Flies while a war was going on and said everyone could be a nazi if they wanted to. He believes all people are born evil and in his head his viewing point is shown in the book and the movie. The book and the movie have the same perspective as loss of innocence, savagery Willliam golding wrote and based his book on the war that was happening in the mid 1940s in Europe. He viewed his world as harsh and cruel. They were taking people to concentration camps he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how far people were capable of going. But he did assure that that if anyone wanted they could become Nazis themselves. He proves that we become what were most scared of if it means being alive. Our brains are controlled to survive no matter what not caring what you can become on the way to survival. Not everyone would become a nazi if they had a choice others have more purified souls and would rather die than become a Nazi. In the m...
Monday, August 19, 2019
Although the cold war has ended and the Soviet Union has disbanded, there is still a need of intelligence collection for the United States. Finding itself as the leader of the rest of the world, the United States must prepare to identify problems as they arise, the earlier the detection, the more likelihood for success. With any one intelligence agency having too much information, problems could arise; therefore, it is imperative to keep a close watchful eye on these agencies to ensure that personal rights are not infringed upon. The success of intelligence gathering agencies is hard to determine. It is difficult to argue that covert operations had much of an impact on the outcome of the cold war (Nutter), but the cold war was not and is not the only objective for intelligence agencies. In fact, since the cold war the intelligence agencies of the United States have accomplished several tasks set before them; for instance, assisting other countries in identifying terrorists like Carlos the Jackal in Sudan, the head of the Shining Path in Peru, and the ring leader of the World Trade Center Bombing in the Philippines. As the leader of the world in the 21ST century, the United States intelligence agencies must keep up this highest level of information gathering procedures in order to stay ahead of any upcoming problems down the road. With intelligence gathering operations being utilized as collection assets on embassies of opposing nations based in the United States, careful consideration must be used when working so close with the American public. Everyday information that may appear irrelevant could be very valuable to domestic or foreign-based companies for advertising campaigns, marketing forecasts, and price gouging. This type of information leakage is a violation of an AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. One problem with having so much information at home and abroad is seeing the correct way to solve dilemmas before they occur. While in war actions of questionable ethics often go unanswered and are hardly given a second thought. In 1941 when the Czech military intelligence service approached the British Special Operations Executive for assistance in an assassination of a German SS Officer no questions were raised, not even about who the target maybe (Richelson). With any agency possessing too much knowledge internally, it may choose to take the short road to ensure success of a mission. Thus, the American public should support the United States intelligence agencies, but keep a close watchful eye on them as well.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
USA: Future Home of the Latino? Imagine an America completely different than what we have now. Imagine an America where white is not the majority; an America where every race that whites have had such a bad history with (and that includes the majority of the races on the planet) suddenly run the country. Minorities are everywhere in this imaginary America, and in a place where minority used to mean everything-but-white, it now means the exact opposite. This America could be our reality soon. Now, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not making this out to be a bad thing, considering this is nearly exactly what the old dead guys who founded this country wanted in the first place. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a whole other essay in itself. In his essay, "The Big New Mix," Renee Loth quotes Leon Bouvier, a demographer from Tulane University. Bouvier claims that "...America will become Ã¢â¬Ëa majority minorityÃ¢â¬â¢ nation by 2050...." If this comes true, sure the American culture might be wiped out. But couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you consider the richest part o f American culture the amount of minority people in our country? If, by 2050, America is "a majority minority" as Leon Bouvier predicts, it will affect everything, including politics, business, entertainment, and education. And it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t all change necessarily for the bad, either. Perhaps the most noticeable change in this imaginary America would be the political scene. For years, women and minorities have sat somewhat silent while the majority whites elect white president after white president. Even some of us white people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t hate any races (no, really, there are some of us out there!) think there should be a black president, a Latino president, or a woman president. If BouvierÃ¢â¬â¢s 2050 America is as he says it will be, this might come true. We might even end up with a Black-Latino-American woman president! What would the KKK do then? With a president representing what is now the minority, obviously there would be greater representation of minorities in the government. But, with a "majority minority" running the country, this representation would occur in congress as well. There would be more minority* input to their Congressmen and women (who might also be minorities) as to what laws need to be passed not to mention a greater minority representation at the voting booths. American business will be an aspect of our lives that will change right under our noses.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1. What is a nuclear family? A nuclear family consists of a unit, which has an adult male and female with their dependant offspring. In common terms this means that there are direct relations such as parents, brothers and sisters. However, if the two adults don't have children it therefore means that they are not part of a nuclear family, they are just part of a household. They must also be related by blood, marriage or adoption to qualify as a nuclear family. The family is based on the concept of monogamy, which in our society is built into the Christian moral code and is supported by our judicial system in England. It is illegal in our society for bigamy to take place. 2. How does the extended family vary from the nuclear? The structure of families varies form society to society. The smallest family unit is the nuclear, whilst units larger than the nuclear family are often known as extended families. Such families can be seen as extensions of the nuclear unit, either vertical extensions Ã¢â¬â for example, the additions of members of a third generation such as the spouses parents, or, horizontal extensions Ã¢â¬â the addition of the same generation as the spouse, e.g. cousins. All of these are blood relatives. 3. What is Kinship? Kinship describes people who are blood related, married or provide support for members of a group. These can be friends or neighbours. They are also about how they influence others within their group relationships. Socialisation and Social Placement 1. What is Socialisation? Socialisation is a lifelong experience in which we learn values. When in the family, it is named primary socialisation where children learn the basic rules of behaviour, norms and beliefs. These include general politeness, table manners, reading etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Later on follows secondary socialisation, which reinforces the norms of living but in a more mature way. We also learn appropriate patterns of behaviour in specific social situations 2.Why is socialisation important? Socialisation is important to maintain the rules of society and learn how to cope with day-to-day life and other people. If there were no form of socialisation, then there would be no maturity in the world in which we live in. There are certain social institutions in which help to upkeep the society such as the judicial system. This enforces the laws of our country, which are made to allow people to live more harmoniously with one another. 3. Who decides what is correct socialisation? Each different society has its own norms and behavioural rules. For instance, doing something totally natural and respectable in one society may be looked down on in another. Therefore there is no one correct type of socialisation, but it depends on the surrounding community. There are, however, rules set by the society's judicial system, which if not adhered to, may result in punishment in the form of fines, warnings or imprisonment. 4. How have ideas of relevant socialisation changed Britain in the last 20 years? Firstly, the media has a profound impact on our society. This institution is booming after the effects that it has on us, whether it is a positive impact, or, usually negative and gives people a bad name. As the media industry has increased, sports have been growing in popularity by the means of television, and sports have been encouraged to be played at an earlier age. Secondly, the government has changed hands from Conservative to Labour. This has had many effects on the way in which we live like transport systems, tuition fees, scholarships/assisted places etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ But, not all of our ways of day-to-day life has changed though. For instance, some of today's clothing fashions were popular a generation ago. Also, there are still exams, but more of them. There are different subjects to be taught and more people being admitted to universities.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS a. Definition of the Industry The following study presents a brief analysis of the Computer and Electronic Manufacturing Industry in the USA (NAICS 334 Ã¢â¬â North American Industry Classification System) with special focus on the Personal ComputerÃ¢â¬â¢s sub-sector. I made the decision to focus on just one of the sub-sectors due to the large scope of the general industry. Industries in the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector group establishments that manufacture computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, and establishments that manufacture components for such products. Ã¢â¬ (Bureau of Labor Statistics) Given the previous description of the general Industry, I can now go further in the definition of the real point of study for this paper, which is the Computer Manufacturing, clustered in laptops, PCÃ¢â¬â¢s and servers. Ã¢â¬Å"This industry manufactures and/or assembles personal co mputers (PCs), laptops and servers.Operators typically purchase computer components (e. g. motherboards and graphics cards) from dedicated manufacturers in other industriesÃ¢â¬ (IBIS World report 33441a, Semiconductor and Circuit Manufacturing). Ã¢â¬Å"This industry does not include tablet computers, nor does it include manufacturers of computer monitors, mice, keyboards and printersÃ¢â¬ (IBIS World report 33411b, Computer Peripheral Manufacturing). When covering the whole industry, Ã¢â¬Å"The US computer manufacturing industry includes about 1,200 companies with combined annual revenue of about $75 billion.Major companies include Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM. Ã¢â¬ (Hoovers 2012) The computer manufacturing industryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue is divided and measured according to each of the sub sectors that conform it. Ã¢â¬Å"Personal computers account for about 40 percent of industry revenue; mainframes and servers, 13 percent; and storage devices, about 10 percent. Ã¢â¬ (HOOVER S) While respecting to the sub-industry in which this paper is focused (PCÃ¢â¬â¢s, laptops and servers), and considering just the United States, it is conformed by 355 businesses generating annual revenue up to US$37 billion.Being the leading companies Hewlett-Packard, Dell and Apple. The total amount of units sold for the industry must be taken in consideration from the quantity of units shipped in the last year: Preliminary United States PC Vendor Unit Shipment Estimates for 4Q11 (Units) Company 4Q11 Shipments 4Q11 Market Share (%) 4Q10 Shipments 4Q10 Market Share (%) 4Q11-4Q10 Growth (%) HP 4,137,833 23. 1 5,598,619 29. 4 -26. 1 Dell 4,020,549 22. 4 4,210,000 22. 1 -4. 5 Apple 2,074,800 11. 6 1,718,400 9. 0 20. 7 Toshiba 1,925,100 10. 7 1,968,091 10. 3 -2. 2 Acer Group 1,756,838 . 8 1,982,477 10. 4 -11. 4 Others 4,014,644 22. 4 3,583,418 18. 8 12. 0 Total 17,929,764 100. 0 19,061,005 100. 0 -5. 9 Note: Data includes desk-based PCs, mobile PCs, including mini-notebooks but not m edia tablets such as the iPad.? Source: Gartner (January 2012) Comparing the studied sub-industry results with previous years, profit and revenue have been constantly decreasing and the annual growth in the last 5 years have been negative for the industry in about 5. 1%. Analysts from IBIS project that this will continue falling for the future 5 more years.Nonetheless, Ã¢â¬Å"The industry is capital-intensive: annual revenue per employee is about $460,000Ã¢â¬ (HOOVERS), while the whole Computer Manufacturing Industry in the US counts with approximately (in thousands) 1,099. 9 employees. b. Internal and External Analysis OPORTUNITIES -There is a growing consumer demand for PCs and tablets. -Ã¢â¬Å"Their rapid growth (of the market) suggests that they will become even more important to the economies of all three North American countries in the futureÃ¢â¬ (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"The proliferation of cloud computing will prompt companies to increase their server investmentsÃ¢â¬ (IBIS 2012)THREATS -Ã¢â¬Å"Industry profit will continue to fall because of intense price competitionÃ¢â¬ (IBIS World 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ Computer Manufacturing industryÃ is being rapidly supplanted by imports, particularly from China. Ã¢â¬ (PR Web 2012) -Imports are a threat for local manufacturing revenue. Ã¢â¬Å"While import penetration in this industry stood at 50. 7% in 2007, imports are expected to satisfy an estimated 68. 6% of domestic demand in 2012,Ã¢â¬ Ã (IBIS World 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"While the emergence of new products and services will boost industry performance, US manufacturers are not expected to produce the required hardware (locally). (PR Web 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"(Ã¢â¬ ¦) Tablets will cut into industry revenue since they are manufactured abroad and are a competing force to domestic computer manufacturing. Ã¢â¬ (PR Web 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"Computer and peripheral equipment prices fell from 2007 to 2012, and as a result, personal computer (PC) sales are estimated to generate razor-thin margins of 1. 0% in 2012. Ã¢â¬ (PR Web 2012) STRENGTHS -Ã¢â¬Å"The Computer Manufacturing industry operates in a highly globalized market, bringing together components that are manufactured worldwide for assembly in a single location.The concentration of computer manufacturing facilities near major ports comes as no surprise. With the widespread use of lean-manufacturing protocols, computer manufacturers heavily favor locations that minimize delays in getting products to market, not to mention shipping expenses. Ã¢â¬ (IBIS World 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"Fortunately, PCs are not the only products in this industry, and industry profit, which includes computers and more profitable products, is expected to account for 3. 8% of revenue in 2012. Ã¢â¬ (PR Web 2012) WEAKNESSES The profitability of individual computer companies depends on purchasing and production efficiencies, and on technological expertise. (HOOVERS 2012) -Ã¢â¬Å"Computer manufacturing a nd design also require highly-educated employeesÃ¢â¬ (IBIS World 2012), these are very hard to find, especially in the same area of the business offices. -Ã¢â¬Å"As a result of offshoring by US-based companies and increased competition from international firms, domestic manufacturing activity has declinedÃ¢â¬ . (PR Web 2012) -The demand for the Computer Industry is tied to consumer and business income, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s very sensitive and variable. . Customer Analysis The total domestic (US) annual demand for the industry by the end of 2011 was US$62. 2 billion. Ã¢â¬Å"The industry's woes cannot be blamed on a lack of demand. In fact, the share of US households that owns at least one computer increased by 7. 5 percentage points from 2007 to 2012. While demand has grown, fierce competition and widespread product homogeneity (the result of computers being assembled from standardized components) have led to falling prices and profit marginsÃ¢â¬ (PR Web 2012)The identified target m arkets/segments for the Computer Manufacturing Industry are the following: 1. Large corporate customers (B2B) Ã¢â¬â Big companies 2. Small and medium size businesses (B2B) Ã¢â¬â Who represent about 20% of U. S. sales 3. Individual Customers and Consumers (B2C) Ã¢â¬â Who represent about 10% of U. S. sales 4. Public sector (government and educational) customers. 3. Competitors Analysis The computer manufacturing industry is highly concentrated within its most revenue-significant businesses due to the top 50 companies are responsible of about 90 percent of the total industryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue. Competition from abroad has tightened profit margins and prices on mass-market computer systems. Consequently, most of the industry's largest players operate in several related industries to diversify their revenue sources, with a particular emphasis on the highly profitable enterprise segment and Information Technology (IT) services. Ã¢â¬ Currently, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Dell are t he largest US-based computer manufacturers, followed by Apple. The total revenue and market share of personal computers for the last year, regarding the top 3 companies in the industry is: . Hewlett Packard PC Market Share: 23. 1% Total Company Revenue (Jul 2011-Jul2012): $122. 52B 2. Dell PC Market Share: 22. 4% Total Company Revenue (Aug 2011-Aug 2012): $60. 30B 3. Apple PC Market Share: 11. 6% Total Company Revenue (Jun 2011-Jun2012): $148. 81B Brands Description: Hewlett Packard Hewlett-Packard Company and its subsidiaries provide products, technologies, software, solutions, and services to individual consumers and small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), as well as to the government, health, and education sectors worldwide.It divides in several segments according to their offerings: Personal Systems Group segment (commercial personal computers, software and services for the commercial and consumer markets), Services segment (consulting and outsourcing to businesses), Imaging and Printing Group segment (consumer and commercial), Enterprise Servers, Storage, and Networking segment (industry standard and business servers), Software segment (IT software and solutions), Financial Services segment (leasing, financing and utility programs for enterprise customers, SMBs, and other entities) and Business Intelligence Solutions.The company was founded in 1939 and is headquartered in Palo Alto, California. They serve more than 1 billion customers in more than 170 countries and have approximately 349,600 employees worldwide. HP defines its function in society like this: Ã¢â¬Å"We explore how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities, aspirations and dreams. We apply new thinking and ideas to create more simple, valuable and trusted experiences with technology, continuously improving the way our customers live and work. Ã¢â¬ Hewlett-Packard HP Key Positioning: You + HP make it matt er. At HP we donÃ¢â¬â¢t just believe in the power of technology. We believe in the power of people when technology works for them. To help you create. To make the digital tangible. To harness the power of human information. At HP we work to make what you do matter even more. Ã¢â¬ (Hewlett-Packard) Dell Dell Inc. provides integrated technology solutions in the information technology (IT) industry worldwide. It designs, develops, manufactures, markets, sells, and supports mobility and desktop products, including notebooks, workstations, tablets, smartphones, and desktop PCs, as well as servers and networking products.The company also offers several technology solutions, systems, software and specialized services. The company sells its products and services directly through its sales representatives, telephone-based sales, and online sales; and through retailers, third-party solution providers, system integrators, and third-party resellers. It serves corporate businesses, law enfo rcement agencies, small and medium businesses, consumers, and public institutions that include government, education, and healthcare organizations. Dell Inc. was founded in 1984 and is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas.Dell describes its function in society like this: Ã¢â¬Å"In all we do, weÃ¢â¬â¢re focused on delivering solutions to enable smarter decisions and more effective outcomes so our customers can overcome obstacles, achieve their ideas and pursue their dreams. Above all, we are committed to the superior long-term value they need to grow and thrive. Dell Key Positioning: Ã¢â¬Å"Simple and affordable information technology for everyoneÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They are focused on making information technology affordable for millions of customers around the world. As a result of direct relationships with customers.They are best positioned to simplify how customers implement and maintain information technology and deliver hardware, services, and software solutions tailored for their b usinesses and homes. Ã¢â¬ (MBA Knowledge Base 2012) Apple Apple Inc. , together with subsidiaries, designs, manufactures, and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players; and sells related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications worldwide.The company sells its products and services to consumers, small and mid-sized business, education, enterprise, and government customers through its retail stores, online stores, and direct sales force, as well as through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers. As of September 24, 2011, the company had 357 retail stores, including 245 stores in the United States and 112 stores internationally. Apple Inc. was founded in 1976 and is headquartered in Cupertino, California. Apple defines its function in society like this: Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. Ã¢â¬ Ã (Apple) Apple Key Positioning: Innovation leaders Competitive Advantage and Strategy of each: AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Post PC StrategyÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"They want to be the dominant operating system through your life Ã¢â¬â at home and on the move. That sounds a little geeky but it means that they want you to be so delighted with your experience on the iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system that you want that same experience on your tablet.After you are satisfied with that experience, you start to wonder why you are still using a PC versus a Mac or MacBook Air as your Ã¢â¬Å"desktop computer. Ã¢â¬ Ã And then that will extend to your television. Ã¢â¬ (Forbes 2012) Ã¢â¬Å"Apple wants to own a generation of post-PC world users and block out their competitors until such time as they can present a higher-quality user experien ce than Apple. That might be a long time. Ã¢â¬ (Forbes 2012) Ã¢â¬Å"The accelerating popularity of mobile computing devices such as Apple Inc's iPadÃ has been eroding PC sales for years.To combat the erosion in sales to consumers, as well as dwindling margins as companies compete on price, Dell and HP have been gradually focusing more on sales to large enterprises. Ã¢â¬ (Reuters 2012) DellÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategy: Ã¢â¬Å"Dell has been diversifying its revenue base in the face of weakened consumer demand, giving up low-margin sales to consumers and moving into higher-margin areas, such as catering to the technology needs of small and medium businesses in the public sector and the healthcare industry.The company now finds itself lagging larger rivals like HP and IBM in the race to become one-stop shops for corporate IT needs. Ã¢â¬ (Reuters 2012) HPÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategy: Ã¢â¬Å"HP today announced that it has completed its evaluation of strategic alternatives for its Personal Systems Group (PSG) and has decided the unit will remain part of the company. (Ã¢â¬ ¦) PSG is a key component of HPÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to deliver higher value, lasting relationships with consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and enterprise customers.The HP board of directors is confident that PSG can drive profitable growth as part of the larger entity and accelerate solutions from other parts of HPÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Ã¢â¬ 4. Executive Summary After this industry analysis, we can see that the computer manufacturing industry in the US is constantly loosing revenue and market share in the world. Almost every business in this Industry (top ranked) are loosing revenue and decreasing profitability. The only company that has increased revenue and has actually grown in the last five years is Apple.For this, I would recommend AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s executives to maintain their actual Ã¢â¬Å"Post-PCÃ¢â¬ strategy because it is known that demand for PCÃ¢â¬â¢s is decreasing while demand for oth er similar electronics such tablets is increasing and will continue doing so in the future. I would recommend Apple, as well, to focus a little bit also in extending their portfolio of offerings by including special services and solutions in order to attend the B2B market and gain some of their competitors share in this segment too. SOURCES 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics (http://www. bls. gov/iag/tgs/iag334. htm#about) 2.NAICS CODES (http://naicscode. com/search/MoreNAICSDetail. asp? N=33411) 3. IBIS World (http://www. ibisworld. com/industry/default. aspx? indid=740) 4. Hoovers (http://www. hoovers. com/industry-facts. computer-manufacturing. 1843. html#megamenu_0. html) 5. Gartner Ã¢â¬â Newsroom (http://www. gartner. com/it/page. jsp? id=1893523) 6. PR Web Ã¢â¬â Article: Ã¢â¬Å"Computer Manufacturing in the US Industry Market Research Report Now Available from IBISWorldÃ¢â¬ . August 14, 2012 (http://www. prweb. com/releases/2012/8/prweb9797684. htm) 7. Research and Markets (http://www. researchandmarkets. com/reportinfo. asp? eport_id=451844=e) 8. Fox Business (http://www. foxbusiness. com/technology/2012/01/12/apple-remains-in-third-place-with-116-us-computer-market/) 9. Yahoo Finance Ã¢â¬â HP (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/ks? s=HPQ) 10. Yahoo Finance Ã¢â¬â Dell (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/pr? s=dell) 11. Yahoo Finance Ã¢â¬â Apple (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/pr? s=aapl) 12. The Wall Street Journal (http://online. wsj. com/article/SB10000872396390443862604578030391796799174. html) 13. HP Official Web Page (www. hp. com) 14. Dell Official Web Page (www. dell. com) 15. Apple Official Web Page (www. apple. com) 16. Reuters
Some of them were top heavy structure, lot of dimensions in the organization etc. Jim sole cleared all these issues very intelligently. He started a team building process and the task and targets Of the company were made clear to everybody. According to Jim, he wanted the person who is able to take decisions and manage the people. Though Jim himself was in favor of selecting from his lot of people, but for the new venture in network printing, he thought that a person, who has some prior experience in the similar fields like VARY and network printing, would be more suitable.The key was to get the right brain t right place and matching personal goals with the job requirements that will make better chances of success. According to Sole, a person with positive attitude, intellectual curiosity, variety of experience, flexible, comfortable in handling situations, looking for fresh challenge was required. A person who can oversee the tail end of the development process and making sure that the product is the one what the customer needed. Also the person should be seasoned and who can leverage the resources Bitterest has developed.Options available as suitable candidate: The first candidate for the job IS William Wendell. He has the right kind of experience that is required, both in VARY and printing industry but not much of it. As per the remarks from Peter, he is Ã¢â¬Å"very politicalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"very focused on own careerÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë. According to me the later characteristic matches with the requirement as the success of the project, as this will sync with his own career advancement. The first remark is somewhat disturbing as for Bitterest a person who is a team leader and group worker is required.This will not disturb the team already there at Bitterest. The second option is Fred Fallow. According to me he is young and dynamic, but the experience is not that much for the job. He has variety of experience also. According to Peter remark, he is work hard and play hard kind of person. At times these types of persons are good but in certain situation they have casual approach that can lead to big problems. The third option is Chris Cowan. He has a lot of experience but according to me he is too old for this new project.At this level of experience, stubbornness comes in the attitude that will harm the new project as well as the teams developed by Jim. Even Peter remarks also tell that he is sometimes abrasive and headstrong. The last option is Mitchell Madison. Similar to Chris he has also tons of experience and in fact he is working as UP for the last 12 years or so. He can also develop similar attitude as Chris. As the remarks of Peter say that he is already getting almost $30000 more than what Bitterest is planning to offer.Preferred choice: According me the best suited candidate for the above post is William Wendell. He is young and having suitable work experience in both VARY and printing industry. Also he is career cautious that will add up for the success of the project. This is a developing field and he will surely want to do the best in this field. Though the danger is from his political side, but I think it may get tramline when he will join bitterest, where the culture is of team work. Apart from this he has all criteria matching with what desires.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Ischemic Heart Disease is one the major causes of decease in developed states. It is increasing being recognized as a major slayer in developing states like India that are presently undergoing demographic and epidemiological passage. Although IHD has a broad gamut of hazard factors like unhealthy dietetic form, serum cholesterin, age, physical activity, high blood pressure remains a major underpin that accelerates the hazard of future IHD. Hypertension is besides being widely investigated because of our ability to observe and pull off it easy and besides the potency for community degree intercession, sing the non-modifiable nature of other hazard factors and every bit good as the restricted feasibleness for intercession as a public wellness step. India has started the national programme for control of NCDs in maintaining with its committedness to react to emerging wellness jobs during the passage. In order to better understand the natural history of IHD many epidemiological surveies have been undertaken. In this context tribal populations have been investigated for IHD hazard factors both in western states and India every bit good. Tribal populations provide a particular epidemiological window to take a closer expression at the natural history of IHDs, based on our given that such populations have a life manner much different from that of modern society which is considered a major determiner of IHD. Tribal people live a hurried life, without the fiscal emphasiss of the modern society, their day-to-day life necessitating moderate to heavy physical activity and their diet forms remain mostly un-penetrated by the high salt, high fat nutrient civilization. This premise holds good as long the tribal people remain unacculturated. The procedure of socialization strips these people of the protective consequence that their traditional ways have provided hitherto. In India tribal population constitutes about 8 % of the entire population. Majority of them reside in the provinces of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. Several surveies have been done to gauge the prevalence of high blood pressure in tribal population. Most of these surveies are from the southern parts of the state. It has been by and large accepted that the prevalence of HTN in tribal population is low but recent surveies have found higher prevalence. We did a systematic reappraisal to place all surveies done in tribal population that estimated HTN prevalence.MethodologyLiterature huntTwo writers independently ran hunts for the cardinal words high blood pressure, tribal, prevalence, India, hazard factors, coronary bosom disease and ischaemic bosom disease. The Boolean operators AND and OR were both used. The databases searched were MEDLINE, INDMED, Science Citation Index and Google Scholar. Documents of national bureaus like ICMR, NIN and other related organisations were besides searched. The members of the ICMR Expert Group on HTN besides provided suggestions for including certain surveies. Cross mentions of all the articles ab initio obtained were besides searched. Hand hunt was done in BBDL and NML. In instance of merely the abstract being available efforts were made to reach the corresponding writer bespeaking the full text. Articles published till September 2012 were searched. Attempts were made to look for gray literature li ke unpublished informations, theses and thesiss. Articles published in other linguistic communications were besides searched if they had a elaborate sum-up in English with the indispensable figures. Extras were removed. If more than one article was published from a survey the article that provided the most appropriate informations and/or the most late published was included. Each article was assessed for quality utilizing standard checklists like CASP/STROBE and information was extracted on predefined spreadsheets. Study features that were considered to hold an impact on the prevalence of HTN were extracted. The inclusion standards were spelled out based on the undermentioned Ã¢â¬â ( 1 ) It should a primary research. ( 2 ) A geographically and temporally defined population. ( 3 ) Cross-sectional survey or informations, or first stage of a longitudinal survey ( 4 ) Defined diagnostic standards stated for Hypertension ( 5 ) Well defined age group ( 6 ) Community based survey ( 8 ) Published in English, or with elaborate sum-ups in English ( 10 ) Provides prevalence informations with appropriate statistics for computation of consequence sizes. In instance of discordance between the writers for inclusion, consensus of the 3rd writer was sought. In instance two different writers reported the same survey as different articles, merely the first published art icle was included.Consequences:A sum of 16 surveies including two NNMB studies were retrieved ab initio. One article ( Mandani et al, 2011 ) was excluded because it reported the same information as given in another survey ( Tiwari RR, 2008 ) . Two of the articles published by Dash SC et Al ( 1986, 1994 ) seemed to be describing on the same information and therefore the most late published article ( 1994 ) was included and the 1986 article was excluded. Full text of one of the articles published by Mukhopadhyay B et Al ( 1996 ) could non be retrieved and the abstract did non provided sufficient information and hence excluded. The NNMB survey done in 2004-05 published as Technical Report No: 24 ( 2006 ) included Scheduled Tribes as one the survey population but provided neither sample size informations nor prevalence informations for this sub-population. Hence this information could non be used. After all these exclusions, a sum of 12 articles ( including one NNMB tribal study ) were taken up for farther reappraisal. In entire these articles provided informations on 23 sub-populations. There was a big grade of heterogeneousness among the surveies in footings of the age groups studied, trying scheme, survey scene, instruments used to mensurate blood force per unit area ( quicksilver vs. electronic ) , individual or multiple BP measurings, standard standards used for categorization of high blood pressure, socialization position of the folks and eventually the consequence of clip period over which the surveies were conducted. The earliest survey found was done in 1981 by Dash SC et Al and the most recent surveies were done in 2009. Merely five surveies were done before the twelvemonth 2000 and the remainder after that. The survey size varied widely between 50 and 47400. Except for two surveies which had used electronic setups, all other surveies have used quicksilver sphygmomanometer ( this information was non available for one survey ) . Almost all the surveies have used a cut-off of 140/90 for the diagnosing of high blood pressure ( JNC VII, ADA or WHO ) but two surveies used a cutoff of 160/95 ( this information was non available for one survey ) . Almost all the surveies used multiple readings of blood force per unit area ( two or three ) for the concluding diagnosing of high blood pressure ( this information was non available for one survey ) . Surveies were non available in all the provinces of the state ; even states known to hold a big proportion of tribal population ( like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, NE provinces ) were left out. Most of the surveies were carried out in southern provinces.S. No.Name of the province in which survey was carried outNumber1 Andhra Pradesh 3 2 Orissa 3 3 Kerala 1 4 Sikkim 1 5 Gujarat 1 6 Andaman & A ; Nicobar Island 1 7 Rajasthan 1 8 Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Kerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka ( 9 provinces survey ( 2009 ) by NNMB ) 1 Most of the surveies were done in big population of both sexes aged & gt ; = 16 or 18 or 20 old ages ( this information was non available for two surveies ) . One peculiar survey entirely included aged population aged & gt ; 60 old ages. Sexual activity wise prevalence was available merely for nine sub-populations. All the surveies explicitly provided the name and socialization position of the folk studied except for the NNMB study ( 2009 ) . The most common sampling scheme adopted by these surveies was simple random trying followed by multistage sampling and non-random sampling. The overall survey quality ranged from just to good. Most of the surveies were of good quality. One survey did non supply adequate information to measure survey quality. The prevalence of high blood pressure reported in these surveies ranged from 0 % to 50 % ( excepting the survey done among aged population ) . The prevalence of high blood pressure reported in surveies done before the twelvemonth 2000 ranged from 0 % to 23 % and that reported in surveies done after 2000 ranged from 17 % to 50 % ( excepting the survey done among aged population ) . The prevalence of high blood pressure in acculturated folks ranged from 0.25 % to 50 % , whereas in unacculturated folks it ranged from 0 % to 31 % . This shows that socialization might move as a determiner of high blood pressure in tribal population. There is an obviously increasing tendency in the prevalence high blood pressure in tribal population ( Fig 1 ) . This figure was obtained by come ining the maximal prevalence reported by the surveies in a peculiar twelvemonth. The prevalence was higher in certain population subgroups which were deemed have particular features like higher consumption of intoxic ant or salt tea, prevailing baccy mastication or toddy imbibing wonts or aged as compared to subgroups which didnaaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬aÃ¢â¬Å¾?t have such particular features.DecisionThe broad scope of prevalence reported in these surveies is unequal to deduce any valid decisions about the prevalence of high blood pressure in tribal population. Surveies with more unvarying methodological analysis should be carried out in a representative sample to obtain a better apprehension of the issue. A good planned follow up survey will turn to the inquiries raised about cogency of the findings reported in this reappraisal. A comparative prevalence survey between acculturated and unacculturated folk is necessary for an in-depth apprehension of the natural history of high blood pressure.Consequences of preliminary meta-analysis ( random effects ) with sensitiveness analysisS.No.Nature of the surveiesNo. of surveies includedPrevalence1 All surveies 23 14.0 2 All surveies ( excepting survey on aged ) 19 11.3 3 Unacculturated tribes* 12 8.2 4 Acculturated folks * 10 20.3 5 Acculturated folks ( excepting survey on aged ) * 9 17.0 6 No particular features in the population studied* 14 6.7 7 Particular features in the population studied* 8 31.7 8 Particular features in the population studied ( excepting survey on aged ) * 4 30.6 9 Surveies done prior to twelvemonth 2000 12 5.3 10 Surveies done after twelvemonth 2000 11 28.3 11 Surveies done after twelvemonth 2000 ( excepting survey on aged ) 7 26.1 * Excludes NNMB survey due to miss of needed information * Excludes NNMB survey due to miss of needed informationRanking of the nature of surveies harmonizing to increasing prevalence of HTNS.No.Nature of the surveiesNo. of surveies includedPrevalence1Surveies done prior to twelvemonth 2000125.32No particular features in the population studied*146.73Unacculturated tribes*128.24Acculturated folks ( excepting survey on aged ) *917.05Acculturated folks *1020.36Surveies done after twelvemonth 2000 ( excepting survey on aged )726.17Surveies done after twelvemonth 20001128.38Particular features in the population studied ( excepting survey on aged ) *430.69Particular features in the population studied*831.7* Excludes NNMB survey due to miss of needed information The lowest prevalence was seen in surveies done prior to twelvemonth 2000, in populations with no particular features and among unacculturated folks. Reasonably high prevalence was seen in surveies done after the twelvemonth 2000 and in acculturated folks. The highest prevalence was seen in surveies done among population with particular features.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Thomas had heard the same devastating story before. He knew what to expect or so he thought. He had seen the shattered lives, lost youth and the trail of broken dreams that had divided families and friends. Often it was the innocent bystanders most affected by such behaviour. The collateral damage was often so costly. But it was Thomas who would end up as DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s target that day. Introduction All researchers have different beliefs and ways of viewing and interacting within their surroundings. As a result, the way in which research studies are conducted vary. However, there are certain standards and rules that guide a researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and beliefs. Such standards or principles can be referred to as a paradigm. To gain a better understanding of why and how the researcher chose the methodological approach in this study, an initial discussion will be completed about the paradigm that best fits the focus of this study. Following a discussion about the research paradigm, the aim of this chapter is to discuss the research design and methodology utilised in this study. In order to describe the variety of research activities undertaken during this study, the data collection activities and associated analysis methods will be systematically discussed under four phases. For ease of discussion, the study activities will be described in the order in which the researcher completed them. The order of the study activities have been outlined in Figure 3. Research Paradigm According to Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts (2007, p. 5), a paradigm is Ã¢â¬Å"a broad view or perspective of somethingÃ¢â¬ . Additionally, Weaver and OlsonÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006, p. 460) definition of paradigm reveals how research could be affected and guided by a certain paradigm by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"paradigms are patterns of beliefs and practices that regulate inquiry within a discipline by providing lenses, frames and processes through which investigation is accomplishedÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, to clarify the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s structure of inquiry and methodological choices, an exploration of the paradigm adopted for this study will be discussed prior to any discussion about the specific methodologies utilized in this study. This study utilised a triangulation approach to explore and guide the development and evaluation of a clinical forensic nursing educational package. The use of both the qualitative and quantitative methodologies was necessary to encompass the different aspects of forensic science and nursingÃ¢â¬â¢s holistic approach to patient care. According to Lynch (2006), providing forensic patient care requires objectivity and neutrality while attending to the various human dimensions of health and well-being. To address the diversity and complexity of such nursing and forensic issues, a mixed methodology was necessary. According to Weaver and Olson (2006), the paradigms most commonly utilised in nursing research are positivist, postpositivist, interpretive, and critical social theory. The quantitative methodology shares its philosophical foundation with the positivist paradigm (Weaver and Olson). The positivist paradigm arose from the philosophy identified as logical positivism and is based on rigid rules of logic and measurement, truth, absolute principles and prediction (Halcomb and Andrew, 2005; Cole, 2006; Weaver and Olson). The positivist philosophy argues that there is one objective reality. Therefore, as a consequence, valid research is demonstrated only by the degree of proof that can be corresponded to the phenomena that study results stand for (Hope and Waterman, 2003). In this study, such rigid principles lend themselves more to the scientific forensic aspects such as scientific knowledge, logic and measurement incorporated into this study (Weaver and Olson, 2006; Lynch, 2006). However, such inflexible beliefs did not have the capacity to accommodate the investigatory aspects of this study that dealt with the social and human experiences. As a result, qualitative methodologies were also incorporatedÃ into the research design (see Table 3.1). The qualitative methodology shares its philosophical foundation with the interpretive paradigm which supports the view that there are many truths and multiple realities. This type of paradigm focuses the holistic perspective of the person and environment which is more congruent with the nursing discipline (Weaver and Olson, 2006). Additionally, the interpretive paradigm is associated more with methodological approaches that provide an opportunity for the voice, concerns and practices of research participants to be heard (Cole, 2006; Weaver and Olson). Cole further argues that qualitative researchers are Ã¢â¬Å"more concerned about uncovering knowledge about how people feel and think in the circumstances in which they find themselves, than making judgements about whether those thoughts and feelings are validÃ¢â¬ (p. 26). Due to the complex nature of the research study, there was no single paradigm that could satisfactorily deal with all of the required methodological aspects. Therefore, the researcher found it necessary to combine the quantitative/positivist paradigm with the qualitative/interpretive paradigm. The blending of both paradigms provided the researcher with the ability to statistically analyse the scientific data whilst also recognizing the complex psychosocial and emotional factors that influence patient care issues. The discussion that follows will further elaborate and describe in detail how each paradigm and methodological approach was implemented in this study. Research Design In this descriptive study, qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques were used including; semi-structured interviews, chart audits, pre and post-test questionnaires, focus group interviews, and the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s field notes of personal observations and conversations. Additionally, to provide a more complete andÃ multidimensional understanding of the issues, a triangulation methodology design was employed (Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts, 2007). In the section below, the discussion will be divided into two main headings; that of descriptive research and triangulation. Descriptive Research In order for the researcher to gain different perspectives and draw attention to different factors that affect forensic practice in Western Australia, descriptive research methods were employed in this study. According to Polit, Beck, and Hungler (2001, p. 180), descriptive methods are used when the researcher seeks to Ã¢â¬Å"describe, observe, and document a naturally occurring phenomenon which cannot readily be ascribed an objective valueÃ¢â¬ . In other words, descriptive research deals with questions that look to explain what things are like and describe relationships but do not predict relationships between variables or the direction of the relationship. Depending on what is to be described, descriptive research can be very concrete or more abstract (DeVaus, 2002). At a concrete level, data collected is often strongly quantitative in nature (Polit, Beck, and Hungler, 2001). In this study, data will be collected in the form of participant demographics, chart audit data, monitoring of implementation tools, and data collected from the pre and post-test questionnaires. In addition, more abstract descriptive research, in the form of stakeholder interviews, was also included. According to Morse and Richards (2002), qualitative descriptive approaches are extremely helpful because evidence of experience and knowledge can be easily missed when quantitative methods are used. In this study, semi-structured interviews were incorporated into the study design because the researcher believed that open ended questions would be the most efficient way to collect data from stakeholder participants. Open ended questions are thought to allow an individual time and scope to discuss their perception and knowledge (Morse and Richards, 2002). DeVaus (2002) believes that descriptive research can play a key role in highlighting theÃ existence and extent of problems which can stimulate interventions and actions that lead to policy change. The intent of stakeholder interviews was to investigate and describe current forensic practices occurring in Western Australia. According to Taylor, Kerrmode and Roberts (2007), qualitative interviews attempt to Ã¢â¬Å"make meaningsÃ¢â¬ from individual accounts and experiences. Forensic patients are usually treated in partnership by medical and legal professionals (Lynch, 2006). Therefore forensic and healthcare stakeholders who work in the field have the best ability to contribute, enhance links and increase the successful integration of services (Haddow, OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell, and Heaney, 2007). The incorporation of stakeholders in this study was to enhance the understanding of the current issues and experiences confronting forensic and healthcare professionals working with and providing care to forensic patients. Triangulation Multiple triangulation methods were utilised in this descriptive study. Triangulation involves the application and combination of several research methodologies in one study (Schneider, Elliott, Lo-Biondo-Wood, and Haber, 2003; Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts, 2007). There are four common types of triangulation discussed within the literature including: data triangulation that involves time, space, and persons; investigator triangulation which uses multiple observers; theory triangulation that uses more than one theoretical perspective to interpret the study phenomenon; and methodological triangulation that involves using more than one methodological strategy during data collection. According to Halcomb and Andrew (2005), the use of multiple data sources and methods to cross-check and validate findings increase the depth and quality of the results and also provides valuable guidance to nursing practice. Triangulation provides in-depth data, increases the confidence in the research results as well as enables different dimensions of the problem to be considered (Barbour, 2001; Jones and Bugge, 2006). A combination of methods is thought by some to improve the consistency and accuracy of data by providing a more complete picture of the phenomenon (Roberts and Taylor,Ã 2002; Halcomb and Andrew, 2005; Williams, Rittman, Boylstein, Faircloth, and Haijing, 2005; Jones and Bugge, 2006). Morse (1991) cited in Minichiello, Sullivan, Greenwood, and Axford, (1999, p. 258) believes that triangulation is a means by which the researcher is able to Ã¢â¬Å"capture a more complete and holistic portrait of the phenomena under studyÃ¢â¬ . In this study, the researcher employed methodological, data, and unit of analysis triangulation. Each of these aspects of triangulation will be discussed individually below and study examples provided to help illustrate the concepts. Firstly, methodological triangulation will be explored which can be sub-divided into within and across-method triangulation (Schneider, et al., 2003; Halcomb and Andrew, 2005). Methodological triangulation Methodological triangulation, according to Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts (2007), involves using two or more research methods in one study at the level of data collection or design. Across-method triangulation involves combining research strategies usually qualitative and quantitative methods. Such an approach is common in nursing studies (Jones and Bugge, 2006; Halcomb and Andrew, 2005). In this study, for example, data from stakeholders interviews were utilised to reinforce and complement the data from quantitative chart audits because concepts mentioned by the stakeholders were checked during the chart audits. Complementary findings in a study make a more valid contribution to theory and knowledge development, enhance diversity, and enrich the understanding surrounding the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and goals (Schneider, et al., 2003; Macnee and McCabe, 2008). Data triangulation Data triangulation can be described as the use of multiple sources of data to obtain differing views about a situation in a single study (Roberts and Taylor, 2002). For example, in this study, data was collected from various interviews, pre and post-test questionnaires and by reviewing nurse participantÃ¢â¬â¢s documentation within patient medical records. Multiple dataÃ sources help validate the findings by exploring different views of the situation under investigation (Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts, 2007). Data triangulation can be divided into categories of time, space, and person (Roberts and Taylor). Time triangulation involves researchers collecting data at different points in time such as time of day; at different days of the week, or at different months of the year (Rinaldi, Carpenter, and Speziale, 2006). In this study, however, the goal was not to compare participant knowledge between shifts or from one month to the next. 46 Instead, the researcher was interested in evaluating an educational intervention over time. Therefore, for this study, only two types of data triangulation were utilised: space and person.Ã Space triangulation involves the collection of data from multiple sites (Roberts and Taylor, 2002). In this study, for example, data was collected from two hospitals emergency departments. Analysis from both sites helped evaluate the effectiveness of Phase III activities of this research and also increased the validity and strengthened the study (Begley, 1996; Halcomb and Andrew, 2005). Person triangulation implies that data was collected from more than one category of person (Roberts and Taylor, 2002; Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts, 2007). For example, in this study, participants included ED nurses as well as key forensic and healthcare stakeholders. The use of various legal and healthcare professionals provided greater insight into a variety of issues including: hospital administration, staffing, costing concerns; medical practices; Western Australian legal requirements and governmental policies; current evidentiary processes; as well as existing investigatory practices. Such data was utilised to support, supplement, and validate the information gained from published forensic material as well as the research data.