Thursday, December 26, 2019

Notes on Do - 10 Things You Can Do With the Verb Do

Think of the word do as the utility infielder in the game of grammar: it can be called on to play any one of several different positions in a sentence. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary offers 36 definitions of the verb do (not counting  its uses in countless phrases) and seven definitions of the noun. Both a lexical verb and one of the three primary auxiliaries, do (along with the forms does, did, and done) is the third most frequently used verb in English. As an auxiliary (or helping verb), do is sometimes called an empty verb or a dummy operator because it has no meaning of its own. But do have some respect for this dummy. As well see, do stays busy, and wed have a tough time communicating without it. Idioms and CollocationsAs a lexical verb, do indicates action of some kind and often hooks up with nouns denoting more specific activities. Here are some common do and done expressions: do an about-face, do any good, do as I say, do away with, do blindfolded, do the dishes, do a double take, do homework, do the honors, do in, do a job on, do justice to, do no good, do or die, do out of, do over, do tell, do time, do the trick, do up, do well, do withoutdone deal, done for, done in, done to death, done to a turn, easier said than done, good as done, over and done with, whats done is done, when all is said and doneSubstitutionsDo also functions as a pro-verb, filling in for any number of other verbs. The expressions do so, do it, and do that commonly refer to actions that have previously been identified: If you want to fire me, please do so.I had put off mailing the application and finally decided just to do it.She thought Id left without telling anyone, but I would never do that. All three expressions serve as substitutes for other verbs (in these examples, go, mail, and leave). Do so tends to be a tad more formal than do it and do that.Multiple DosIts not unusual for more than one do to show up in a sentence. How do you do?What do you do for a living?How do you find time to do all that you do? (Without resorting to doo doo jokes or the chorus to Lou Reeds Walk On The Wild Side, see if you can outdo that last example.)Wh- QuestionsIn many questions that begin with a wh- word (who, what, when, where, why, and—oops—how), a form of do comes before the main verb: What do you want?Where did Cheeta put the bananas? When did follows a wh- word, its often contracted to /d/ in informal speech and written as d: Whered Cheeta put the bananas?Yes-No QuestionsWe can fashion a yes-no question by placing a form of do in front of the subject: Do you enjoy listening to lectures?Does anybody know what time it is?Did your sister go out this morning? The use of do in questions is called do-support or do-insertion.NegativesBy adding not (or the contraction nt) to do, does, or did, we can create a negative sentence: Many workaholics do not enjoy their jobs.Casper doesnt believe in ghosts.Nyla didnt like the cold weather. In a negative imperative with the copula be, do not (or dont) appears in front of be: Do not be afraid.Dont be so self conscious. As you can see, present and past endings become part of do and not part of the main verb that follows it.Tag QuestionsA question added to a declarative sentence to check or clarify information is called a tag question. Customarily, a negative declarative takes a positive tag question, while a positive declarative takes a negative tag: You dont trust me, do you?You do miss me, dont you? When theres no auxiliary verb in the main clause, a form of the dummy operator do is used in the tag: Your sister loves to play pranks, doesnt she?EmphasisIn declarative sentences, do, does, and did can be used for emphas is: You do need to be honest with your child.Despite what you think, I did enjoy the play. In speech, emphatic do is usually stressed.ImperativesThe emphatic do can show up at the beginning of an imperative sentence, usually to make it sound less abrupt: Do stop by when youre in the neighborhood. But notice that this do isnt always so friendly: Do shut up, Hyacinth. Truth be told, this version of the emphatic do probably occurs more often in 19th-century novels than in actual conversations.In some cases, do can also replace the whole imperative: Ill see to it this evening, the lawyer said.Yes, please do, I said.Omissions in Comparative ClausesIn a comparative clause, we can use a form of do to avoid repeating part of the main clause: The Pritchetts work much harder than we do.Gloria drives much faster than Jay does. In these examples, do is considered a stranded operator--an auxiliary that stands alone without a main verb alongside it. Is this the final word on do? Hardly. For one thing, theres the extraordinarily vague do in the Nike slogan  Just do it. For another theres the do in Frank Sinatras scat line Do-be do-be do. Then theres Fred Flintstones memorable  exclamation, Yabba Dabba Do! But before things get too silly, this will simply have to do.

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