Wednesday, May 29, 2019
lala :: essays research papers
In 1999, Mary DeGenova and F. Philip Rice conducted an experiment to determine the differences between the covers of twelve popular mens and womens magazines. cardinal out of the sixty-nine covers viewed of the womens magazines contained some message just about bodily visual aspect, whereas none of the fifty-three covers of the mens magazines viewed contained such messages (78). It seems that the media socializes women to value themselves according to their appearance and men are taught that being a man is about status and success rather than physicality (DeGenova and Rice 68). Karen Horney, a German psychiatrist in the early twentieth century, maintained that there is a distrust that exists between the sexes partly because we all have a natural fear of losing ourselves in some other person (361). Because trusting someone of the opposite sex requires vulnerability, people are reluctant to allow themselves to be seen without the protective shield of indifference. After perusing t he may issues of Elle, G.Q., Glamour, and Maxim, one could detect that women are taught to please men through their appearance and their sexual prowess while men are taught to use their fashion and their intimacy to appear ambivalent and independent.Before one can consider the messages contained within the magazines, he or she must be aware of the media existing as a socializing agent. Magazines and other forms of Taylor 2mass media transmit several messages that shape the way individuals view themselves and others. There are several perceived differences between the grammatical gender roles of men and women. Young children are taught schemas of gender that continue to be culturally and socially reinforced as they grow up the children, in turn, use these schemas to mathematical process information about themselves and about others. Children are encouraged to assume the appropriate gender identity by being rewarded for behaviors that align with socially-determined gender expectati ons and punished for those that do not. Those who live up to societal expectations are accepted as normal those who do not conform are criticized and pressured to comply. (Transition sentence) All four magazines viewed contain messages about the importance of style, but Elle and Glamour, womens magazines, promote the idea that a females personal happiness is linked to her physical appearance. Elle contained an article entitled Pretty, beguile which demonstrated various techniques of applying makeup in order to make a woman appear more beautiful. G.Q. and Maxim, mens magazines, endorse style as a means of exuding machismo.